Facebook aktivistler için ücretli mi olacak?

Facebook, kullanıcıların alışkanlıklarına göre bazı profilleri, kişisel amaçlar dışında bularak toplumsal sayfalara dönüştürüyor. Bu durum bireysel aktivistlerin kişilik haklarına bir müdahale.

(Orjinali AGOS’ta)

 

ABD’de Occupy Wall Street (OWS) eylemleri aktivistlerinden biri olan ve Facebook kullanmaya başlamasından uzun zaman önce sıkı bir MySpace hayranı olan Patti Beers bir gün hesabına girdi ve ekranda bir uyarı ile karşılaştı. Uyarıda, kendisinin profilinin bir marka, ürün ya da kuruluşu temsil etmek için kullandığının tespit edildiği ve kişisel profilinin sayfaya çevrileceği belirtiliyordu. Bu uyarı ile birlikte kendisinin ‘zaman tüneli’ artık kamuya mâl edilmiş, kişilikten çıkarılarak kurumsallaştırılmış oluyordu.

Bireysel hareket eden, katıldığı eylemlerde kendi hesabı üzerinden canlı yayın yapan ve video kanalını da bu hesaptan duyuran Beers için kaybolan yalnızca bir zaman tüneli değil aynı zamanda binlerce kişi ile yürüttüğü kişisel iletişim, aile fotoğrafları ve yakın dostlarıyla olan dijital hatıralarıydı. Kurumsallaştırılmış bir sayfaya dönüştüğünde Beers’in profili kişisel bilgilerinden arındırılarak, bundan böyle yalnızca paylaşacağı içerikleri gösterecekti. Kendisi bu durumu “Sanki dilimin kesilmesi gibi” olarak niteliyor.

Facebook kullanıcı sözleşmesi, kullanıcıların herhangi bir kuralı ihlal etmesi durumunda bir hizmeti kısmen ya da tamamen kesilebileceğini belirtiyor. Beers’ın profili de böylece yüklediği binlerce fotoğrafı, kaydettiği videoları ve paylaşımlarını yitirmiş durumda. Katıldığı eylemlerde ‘Ustream’ kanalını her açtığında 3500 kişinin anlık olarak görüntülediği canlı yayın bağlantıları artık yeni profilinde anasayfaya eskisi kadar sık düşmeyecek de.

Kapatılan aktivist profilleri

Beers, bir haber kanalına dair yorumlarının ardından profilinin kişisel zaman tünelinden çıkarıldığını belirtiyor. Bu süreçte arkadaşlarının kendisine ulaşmaya çalıştıklarında, kullanıcı sözleşmesini ihlal eden bir kullanıcı profiline erişim sağlanamayacağı ve mesajlarının iletilemeyeceği uyarısıyla karşılaştıklarını belirtiyor.

Yakın zamanda anonim kullanıma karşı başlatılan uygulamalarıyla da dikkat çeken Facebook, daha önceki aktivist profillerinin kapatılması eylemlerinin ardından yeniden dikkatleri üzerine çekti. Anonim hesaplar kapatılırken çok sayıda pedofil-avcısı aktivistin hesabı kapatıldığını da hatırlatan Beers kendisinin gerçek adını ve kimliğini kullandığını, kullanıcı sözleşmesinin hiçbir maddesine aykırı davranış göstermediğini belirtiyor.

Hesabın kapatılması ve kurumsallaştırılması ardında yatan bir diğer neden olarak ekonomik getiri öne sürülüyor. Facebook, sayfaların iletişim amacıyla kullanılırken sağladığı hizmetlerin kalitesini aldığı ücretlere göre değerlendirmeye başlamış ve sayfa yöneticilerinin ancak ücret ödemesi karşılığında paylaşımlarını belli sayıda kişiye yönlendirme stratejisi belirlemişti. Daha önce bireysel profil kullanan Beers’ın yeni sayfası aynı etkiyi yaratabilmek ve benzer rakamlarda kişiye ulaşabilmek için oldukça yüksek meblağlar ödemesi gerekecek. Daha önce on binlerce kullanıcıya ulaşan ve hatta bazı paylaşımları viral olarak yayılan Beers’ın yeni sayfasında ulaşabildiği kişi sayısı henüz 13′ü geçmiyor.

Aktivist haberciliği karşısında bir engel

Aktivist ağlarından doğan bir haber portalı olan ‘Revolution News’ın kurucu editörü Jenny Baker, yaşanan olayın temelinde Facebook’un iş modelinin bulunduğunu belirtiyor. RevoNews için de 12 milyon gibi yüksek bir erişim rakamının, ‘sayfalar’ uygulamasının güncellemesiyle yalnızca yarım milyona düşmüş olması örneğini veren Baker, kâr odaklı şirketlerin iş modelleri güncellendikçe aktivist ve gönüllü muhabirlerin işlerinin zorlaşacağını da belirtiyor.

Yalnızca OWS aktivistleri değil, Türkiye’de de birçok aktivistin profilleri çeşitli gerekçelerle kapatılmıştı. Hatırlanacağı gibi özellikle de yurttaş gazetecilik örnekleri birer birer Facebook kullanıcı sözleşmesi gerekçe gösterilerek defalarca kapatılmış, sansür mağduru olmuştu. Ötekilerin Postası editörlerinden “Radikal Aktivist”in profili neredeyse düzenli denebilecek aralıklarla halen kapatılıyor.

Kişisel veriler meselesi

Bugüne kadar kişisel verilerimizi nasıl koruyacağımız, mahremimizi nasıl saklayabileceğimiz üzerine çokça tartışma yürütülmüştü. Ancak belki şimdi ilk defa, paylaşımlarının bozulmadan kalmasını isteyenlerin hikayesini konuşmaya başlıyoruz. Takma adlara karşı savaş açmış olan Facebook’un kâr politikaları günden güne mecrayı, toplumsal sorumluluk hissi taşıyan aktivistler ve gönüllüler için zorlu bir ortama dönüştürse de; gerçek adını kullanan bireysel paylaşımları olan kişiler için de artık tehlike arz eder oldu.

Kişisel paylaşımlarını adeta bir bireysel gazete gibi kullanan aktivistler için RevoNews ve diğer yurttaş gazetecilik ağları verilerini çarpraz şekilde güvenlik altına alarak aynı zamanda her daim bir kurtarma klasöründe kopya saklamayı öneriyor. Unutulmaması gereken önemli bir husus, şu an gayet geniş kitlelerin kullandığı sosyal medya mecralarının asla özgürlüğün kendisi olmadığı ve bunların birer şirket olmaktan öte gitmediğidir. Bir süre için ne şekilde hizmet sunarlarsa sunsunlar, her ne kadar hürriyet-araçları sağlarlarsa sağlasınlar, bir gün “şirket politikaları” gereği herkesi ya da her şeyi satışa çıkarabileceklerini unutmamak gerekli.

 

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“Say Stop to Antisemitism” Protest was held in Istanbul

 

There has been a steep rise in antisemitic hate speech and attacks in Turkey over the last few years. Especially during and after every Israeli offensive in Palestinian lands. Most recently some racist and violent groups have taken up the excuse of Al-Aqsa Mosque provocations and used this is a pretext to attack Turkish-Jews and synagogues.

In order to protest against the rising antisemitism in Turkey and commemorate the horrific events of the past, Say Stop has held a protest meeting with dozens of participants. When activists were gathering in Galatasaray Square in Taksim’s Istiklal, right next to the venue was placed ten times more policemen than activists as usual. The moment banner was opened, interestingly enough some people came to ask questions in English, thinking anyone protesting antisemitism would come from abroad and not from within Turkey. It was also interesting to hear questions as the the meaning of the word “antisemitism” as some of the passer-bys did not know what it means.

In fact, this happened to be a protest in delay. There was supposed to be a protest meeting to commemorate the Kristallnacht and rising antisemitism in Turkey the week before. This commemoration would be taking place in the open air for the first time in Turkey, yet due to several reasons it did not happen. As “Say Stop” collective of anti-racist activists was preparing for the commemoration, attacks to Neve Shalom Synagogue came as a bad surprise. On November 7 and 9 two attacks took place, significant for the timing also because it was just a week before the 11th anniversary of Al-Qaeda attacks on Istanbul’s Neve Shalom and Beth Israel synagogues, which took place on November 15th, 2003, leaving 27 dead and 300 wounded.

There are unfortunately many groups that take courage from notable people’s antisemitic rhetoric and hate speech that goes unpunished. Over the summer of 2014 when there was the Israeli offensive in Gaza killing thousands, the head of constitutional commission from the governing AKP Samil Tayyar had tweeted “may your ancestors perish, may your Hitlers be abundant”, which then led a wave of antisemitic support on social media. Much like several politicians and musicians who had such rhetoric at the time, over 30.000 people used similar remarks most of which would be considered hate speech. This hate speech was later followed by one shop keeper putting up a sign that stated “jew dogs can not enter”.

“Jew dogs can not enter”

One might also remember other instances of antisemitism prevailing in Turkey, perhaps the incident right after the mining tragedy in Soma, current President Erdoğan had called “jewish sperm” to a mourning relative of a miner as an accusation towards him. One other incident that also got caught up on news was the head of physics department from Bilecik University, Ali İhsan Göker got into a quarrel with a journalist who published a story on antisemitism in Turkey, at an Israeli newspaper. Dr. Göker referred to Treblinka where hundreds of thousands of people were killed and tweeted “Treblinka will be ready soon. Constructing the railway to transport jews at the moment.”

Say Stop has been campaigning against racism, nationalism, discrimination, and is an all-inclusive collective of activists which had slowed down on activities for some months last year. Just when activities were to be kick-started once again with the “racist of the month” ‘award’, then came more than 30 thousand candidates in a month which made things a little bit complicated; so for the month of July, collective Say Stop declares all antisemites as “racist of the month”.

And once again, the activists of Say Stop / DurDe will be with all those that are being targeted out of hatred, for their origins, religion, language, choice, preference, status, etc. Just like any other group that Say Stop campaigns in support of –such as Armenians, Roma, refugees, immigrants, LGBTI individuals- the Jewish population is not alone either.

 

 

 

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Digitaler Salon in Berlin: How do Blogs score in contemporary media league?

One of the best outcomes of international gatherings in world-scale metropolises is new connections and emerging opportunities. The Digitaler Salon in Berlin’s Humboldt University is one of those outcomes. While in Berlin someone suggested I pay a visit to the Institute for Internet and Society and introduce myself. I was invited to a very exciting and informative event organized by the Institute. On the evening of October 29th, Digitaler Salon was held with the participation of three very successful experts from academia, journalism and blogging. The topic was Crisis Reporting with the comments of Christoph Sydow of Al Sharq, Thomas Wiegold, a journalist who covers defense and military policies, and Dr. Johanna Roering, a media researcher focusing on propaganda at Tübingen University.

Out of my habit of not being able to rely on punctuality and effectiveness of public transport in many countries and cities, I left before the agreed time and arrived at the venue earlier than expected. The speakers greeted me and we started talking about the day’s topic, crisis and war reporting and the involvement of social media and bloggers, and also about how blogs are perceived and how the media are transforming. The discussion took place at the Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society, located right at the Bebelplatz, facing the infamous “book burning memorial” that was erected at the place where thousands of books were burnt in 1933, May 10.

The pre-discussion of course had a tendency to turn towards news from Turkey, as there was one particular participant in the audience who had brought much news from Istanbul to their attention previously. So talk began revolving around the level of press freedom, the number of journalists who have lost their jobs, government control over what gets published, and even controversial accidents journalists have had. As there was a professor present who focuses on “propaganda and media,” the 6,000 “social media experts” the Turkish government has hired were also mentioned in the context of manipulating media focus and online discussions. This is a negative example of the use of digital tools for journalistic purposes.

After a few pretzels and some wine, the the actual session was ready to start. The coordinators were ready, cameras were rolling and everyone took seats in a very cozy atmosphere. Greetings were exchanged and participants were welcomed, and the talks began. While the topic in general was issues of reliability and verification of the news—comparing the limited resources of many bloggers to newsrooms’ advanced networks and resources—there was a special focus on media pluralism and press freedom in countries where there seem to be problems with freedom of expression and press freedom.

Verification Problems

It is an undeniable argument that bloggers lack the resources or the ability to build networks as reliable as the mainstream media. Yet verification has many levels and tools these days. A very useful book, Verification Handbook, supplies a lot of information not only for newbie bloggers but also old-school journalists who might need further help. The book is being translated into several languages. Also, it is important not to have high expectations of bloggers and citizen journalists who mostly run their pages on a voluntary basis, unlike profit-oriented media outlets. Yet a blog post from the ground can also guide the professional journalist who might otherwise be unable to grasp the issue from the outside. In the end, real news should be a fine balance between what we see on the blogosphere and print (traditional) media.

What happens under governmental pressure?

When it comes to international news, and especially news related to defense strategies, the military, and security, it is true that traditional journalists have better connections and sources for supplying reliable information from the ground; however when the type of news changes to national scale, then the balance might be disturbed a little. At the Digitaler Salon the main focus of the discussion was on defense and military related news. But the situation in the streets in Hungary, for example, was being reflected in a completely different way the traditional media there and by bloggers during the same week. That could be a perfect example of what might go wrong with traditional media outlets where there is a lack of media pluralism.

Basically a profit-oriented company that focuses on expanding revenues while trying to reach out to even more buyers/audience, and facing pressure from the national government, would not really reflect the psyche of the streets and would want to continue keeping friendly relations with the authorities. In that case it would only be the independent reporters in the country who might be able to reflect on what’s going on there. Yet, if this independent journalist is not an expert of the region or country, or has not spent long enough time to really grasp what is going on, s/he would not be able to give an accurate report of the event. In that case s/he also relies on good contacts who might be able to share more information with the journalist and this happens to be mostly in blog form these days apart from personal conversations.

In a similar fashion the citizen journalists and bloggers might also reflect onto events in too much passion and misinterpret the situation. If the person reporting the news or events is coming from the right in the middle of whatever might be going on, it would probably be hard for the person to give accurate information freed from personal passion, grudge, and all other emotions. Or these reports may be subjected to misinformation and unverified sources that may in fact cause more harm. And one important aspect not to be forgotten is, how to differentiate the citizen journalists from the classical journalists that they complain about; or what to do in order for anyone reporting from a crisis zone to avoid war-fetishism when it comes to reflecting on the pulse of the streets?

Overall, it was an occasion to bring forth the discussions revolving around journalism, media pluralism and press freedom in 21st century. As a final comment, I can say that it was a valuable experience to be able to attend such an occasion and perhaps it could set an example for other parts of Europe to elaborate such discussions, of course in a way that it would serve as more informative from multiple aspects. And in terms of sustaining media pluralism, a more internationalist approach could in fact help covering issues that local authorities might not enjoy seeing be covered.

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Turkish Media seamlessly support the One Man


The notorious level of the media’s freedom in Turkey has proven their inability to report accurately many times in the last couple of years. On the national level it is a daily habit by now to witness the performance of the pool-media where, on certain days, all newspapers come out with the same headlines and main articles, and compare these pieces of “news” to the parody paper Zaytung. However, when it comes to international fiascos, one has to wait a few months for another example of scandalous reporting.

Colorless milk ports flap furiously

Only a couple of months after the Gezi Park Protests, the daily Yeni  Şafak had won the gold medal in the propaganda Olympics by trying a long-shot attempt at proving Noam Chomsky’s “manufacturing consent” theory through an interview with Chomsky himself, yet failed to publish the answers to non-existent questions correctly. When it was discovered that some of the answers printed on paper did not actually belong to the internationally renowned philosopher, the editors published a Web page showing all the claimed-original answers, which included some really bad Google-translated sentences, one of which also included the word “milk port.” Later on this fiasco was referred to as “a general plot against national stability and security” by the editor-in-chief of the newspaper.

At the beginning of October, a video was shown of US Vice-President Biden at Harvard University talking about the Middle East and how some allies, including Turkey, have helped radical entities, and especially ISIL, in the region and explaining that this had expanded the scope of instability in the region. Upon these words, Turkish President Erdogan had said that the American Vice-President would be “history for me if he has indeed used such expressions.”

Towards midnight on the day this demand came from the Turkish President, all pro-government media started emergency broadcasts of the news, with news flashes of the apology that came from the US Vice-President. According to the reports, Joe Biden had called Erdogan and apologized for his “claims.” CNN Turk had broadcast the news, referring to White House spokesperson Josh Earnest and reporting that Joe Biden had apologized for misinterpreting a conversation with President Erdogan.

There were long articles as to why an American Vice-President would apologize to the Turkish President and how it took place. Many “experts” on all TV stations interpreted the situation as Turkey’s emerging as a giant power, and proving to the whole world what a marvelous neo-Ottoman state Turkey has become. The next day, it was possible to hear citizens on the streets talking about the strength of their state and their pride in making one of the strongest peoples on earth apologize to their “fatherland.”

 

Yet, the milky dream lasted about a month before Biden was on the screens of CNN, this time stating that he never apologized. He said “There’s nothing I’ve said that I haven’t said that was truthful. And so sometimes – you know, everybody says they’re looking for authenticity. What I have done is where – if there’s been a general – genuine misunderstanding – let’s take the comment, you know – I’m told I – I apologized to (Turkish) President Erdogan. I never apologized to him. I know him well. I’ve dealt with him. I called him and said, ‘Look, what was reported was not accurate to what I said. Here’s what I said.’”

In the atmosphere of lack of media pluralism, I presume that not many reporters bothered to run a background check on the claims or demand a further comment from Vice-President Biden regarding the apology. On the other hand, in a country where the media are under a lot of pressure, it would be hard to ask for verification of the news when the claim is coming from the One Man of the country. Yet, it is enough to make the whole country the world’s laughing-stock once again, alongside all the other fiascos in every corner.

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Schloss Wartin or How to #FixEurope with European Alternatives

Activists and intellectual young people from across Europe from all directions gathered in the heart of Europe, at a centuries old castle near Berlin, at Schloss Wartin. European Alternatives that has organized the meeting has set up the agenda to discuss problems that Europe faces and find possible “solutions” that might bring about a better future for all of us. We have shared, we have learned, we have explored and most importantly elaborated all kinds of matters that Europe is facing today.

Dozens of people gathering around a table of vegetarian grill raised their glasses for a better future in the hopes of a more complete Europe. People seem eager to discuss matters that they think are vital for the future of the continent, and suddenly it became all of a sudden much easier to solve any problem the old continent might have. Once the path to discussion and dialogue is opened, rational people would be able to find a way to come over whatever is bothering the whole area, and be able to give an answer to those who claim that there would never be any answer.

When participants were asked to simply note down the things they think needs fixing in Europe, the list just went on and on. The list was getting almost as long as the history of the castle. This is not to discourage any Europhile in fact. It is a mere opportunity to see what happens when there is a very unilateral understanding of integration and European unification plan.

Our delightful host’s food is served in the main hall, impatiently waiting while enjoying the tunes of the piano, one would wonder how many new ideas are popping up in everyone’s head at that moment. Every single minute is inspirational, among all the creative and impressive people in a calm and quiet atmosphere in the lack of internet connection. Ideas actually get jotted down and new ones spread around on tables, faster than the circulation of food I must say.

Issues that swept from attention get brought up to agenda, and the things that people did not maybe pay enough attention to previously. This time we can spare all the time in the world for a few days, as there is no wifi zone to bring us the distractive “unread 666 messages”. Glasses and bottles cling, new ideas keep popping up right in the middle of sounds of nature. Peace and tranquility surround the activists, giving them the much-needed peace. In the darkness and cold of the night, old project get talked of, bringing about new project proposals already.

Premiere of the Transeuropa Caravan took place at the castle with the participation of all the activists in the campus. No need to add that it was inspirational as all other events; revealing certain local problems that parts of Europe experience and most other parts would not even hear if it was not for such initiatives to bring Europe closer to all citizens.

We gathered in Berlin with one big aim, to target and tackle problems of Europe in general. We left the Schloss Wartin with thousands of new ideas and a lot of inspiration and motivation to get to work. The ending of the campus was a joyful ride back to Berlin city center, where we had the chance to attend a conference at the Heinrich Böll Stiftung, which opened with a keynote speech by Saskia Sassen. She talked about all the crisis moments that we can see very clearly all around, especially the housing bubble and gentrification tactics in most major cities. Sustainability has become one of the primary topics for us all.

After all the talks and discussions, we the activist of European Alternatives at #FixEurope campus meeting, can agree to the slogans of the streets “this is yet the beginning…”

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Armenian-Turkish Youth at Closed Borders Open Minds Meeting

Armenian and Turkish youth has got together in Istanbul for the second phase of the project titled “Closed Borders Open Minds” after the first one in Yerevan May, 2014. This has been my second participation in an Armenian-Turkish project and there has been a few Armenian participants who have attended the first part as well. The Regional Studies Center has been carrying out this project as part of a consortium, funded by the European Union, for normalization between the two countries and I remember the exact words of one of the coordinators, Haykak Arshamyan back in Yerevan: “At the end of the day what matters most is the friendships that emerge out of such projects”. And that is exactly what seems to have happened.

Throughout the project trainings and free time social activities, I can not help but compare this initiative to several other cross-border cooperation projects I have been part of with young people from Greece and Bulgaria. I happen to remember some of the trainings from that period too, but most of what I remember is the person-to-person interaction that we have experienced and the friendships that were forged in those days. Similarly, this time with the Armenian young people, same thing has been happening.

Compared to the first phase of the projects there are a few things I can see being different. Back in Yerevan we were staying at a hotel not at the city center but about 10km outside, which required taxi transportation for 15 minutes and speaking no Armenian, some locals’ guidance for us every time we wanted to go to the center. Here in Istanbul, we were staying at the very heart of the city, right next to the famous Gezi Park, in Taksim. This meant that anyone could stroll around freely and being in one of the most cosmopolitan places in the world, it meant that one can even melt in crowds easily by herself without the help of any locals. In my opinion the interaction between locals and visitors helps creating bonds and contributes to the success of project goals.

A second significant difference between Yerevan and Istanbul was that this time there has been more personal gossip between participants compared to the first time, especially the ones that had already been together previously. This, in my opinion, is also a plus in the calculations as it means that we are not focusing on the national, political, top-down problematic situations but more on human interaction. Out of the social time we spent, there emerged more personal discussions first elaborating issues on individual level and later being flooded by ideas and inspiration, being creatively dedicated to future collaborations.

For me personally it seems like the actual success of this program will not be when (if) politicians and diplomat from both sides take their seats down on two sides of a table, but when we keep meeting and be able to have tea together in whatever country we may be. It is inspiring to see the young people’s interest in the normalization process and so many applications to be part of this project. As long as there are people willing to further the dialogue with the “other” side, there is always hope for more. Who knows, perhaps Hrant Dink’s foresight regarding the normalization.

In my opinion, the free time we got all together was the most productive part of the week. We have been to several places. Some places had been playing Armenian music and some playing shared tunes in both cultures. This seemed to surprise some of our guests as there was expectations of less inclusive social culture perhaps. Another surprising moment we had noted was the citation of Armenian architects that worked at the construction of Ottoman palaces in Istanbul, in the recent touristic guidebooks.

One major visit we had as a small group from among the participants was to Bosphorus University where our friends have enjoyed the beautiful view of the campus as well as the history and significance of this campus for Armenia. I am glad to have completed the program with such positive outcomes and raised hopes for future progress. Perhaps time may come to even bring the monument to humanity back some day with the normalization; yet being more realistic, of course we are focusing on the personal level and continue our dedication to the process.

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Possible Imprisonment of Tweeps: Crime of Criticism

Draconian internet laws in Turkey are deepening yet once again with a new reform package that will bring by new measures against freedom of speech in Turkey. Previously, the government has already tried to silence masses through censorship measures, surveillance of netizens, blocking access to web sites, or even raids on online news portals’ headquarters. The most recent “development” on the laws against online free speech is the most recent law draft that foresees upto 5 years of imprisonment for tweeps that criticize the government online.

The signatories of the infamous censorship bill -or as the official name refers to it as 5651: Regulation on the Publications on the Internet- have drafted a new bill and presented to the parliament floor on the evening of October 14th. The new bill will allow all the possible suspects that have so far been declared “traitors, enemies, coup-plotters” to be put on full surveillance target with just an order from a judge. The requirement of “tangible evidence” that has been asked by the courts so far is no longer in the book, which allows the judges to give the order upon “reasonable doubt”. The new law also allows properties of the government-critical suspects to be confiscated, if the accusation is criminal activity or organizing a gang.

What is Criminal?

What consists criminal activity in Turkey has long been a problematic issue and the new bill is no different than any previous one either. The main excuse in suppressing free speech in the country so far has been “worries over national security”. Crimes against the state include plans to end unity and integrity of the state, cooperation with enemy, propagating war against the state, actions against the basic national benefits, conscripting soldiers for a foreign nation, harming military premises and agreements in favor of foreign soldiers, economical and financial contributions to enemies.

If one is to be a little obsessive, in fact any attempt on strengthening of the regional governments and Europeanization process that requires this, can get to be declared as a crime against the state. And the witch hunt trials that have been going after hundreds of military officers over the years would definitely be a type of harm against the military.

Less urgent crimes that have been cited in the bill include violation of the constitution, crime against legislative body, armed uprising against the government, assembling organization for these crimes. Even though armament had been previously mentioned as a crime in another law, this time the new bill seems to reflect more onto the protection of government against all types of possible criticism. And, obviously the government would be exempt from the crimes of violating constitution when citizens’ basic rights and liberties are being violated, even though they are guaranteed under the constitution.

Social Media on Target

Threat as a crime is considered to be a much greater fault with the new law and will be punishable by prison sentence. The new bill suggests that the citizens that criticize government harshly on social media platforms are included within the scope of threatening-crime. According to the current laws, threats bring about imprisonment only for the crimes that face two years and more of prison sentence. For that reason, the government has updated the prison sentence to two years minimum. The new bill also includes clauses that state that those who criticize the president, prime minister, ministers or the security forces openly or over social media will be considered under the crime of threatening and face possible arrest. The new bill also is targeting the prosecutor who has run the graft probe of 17/25 December last year that revealed the greatest corruption scandal in the history.

Not only Internet but also Streets…

The new bill’s scope is not limited to digital public spaces but also makes opposition movements’ visibility on streets problematic. The slogans that have been adopted by critical groups on street protests had already drawn many frowning faces so far, and with the new bill they will be considered a crime. New law also breaches the diplomatic immunity of politicians, allowing them to be put on trial as well, in case of threats against public-officers, soldiers, police, governors etc. The prison sentence will possibly go upto 5 years depending on the intensity of the “criminal activity”.

Right to No Defense

Moreover, the new bill also harms the right to audience and defense principle. The lawyers will have harder time to reach their clients’ files and defend them fairly. The bill states that the lawyers’ involvement in bringing the accused’s files to visibility would breach the investigation thus should be limited upon the request of judge’s orders.

Reversal of Improvement

The draft bill will be reversing the improvements that have been achieved in the last year with regards to legal procedure, and the few positive remarks in the European Union accession progress report are being met with counter-develeopments that will present a much graver situation in the coming period. Combined with the intentions to arm the police forces with greater authority to “shoot to kill” in times of protests and plans to multiply the number of water cannons by five/ten fold as the prime minister has stated, the new bill is just another obstacle created against any kind of free speech, right to assembly, right to access information and many other rights and liberties. It seems and feels like the road to illiberal democracy -if that’s democratic at all- proceeds faster than expected.

 

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6 Cities under Curfew, More Than Dozen Killed in Turkey

The Kobane in Syria’s Kurdish region has been resisting against ISIS for days and in the last days situation has been worsening due to ISIS advances. Civilians have been fleeing and taking refuge in Turkey, hundreds of thousands have been walking to Turkish border, leaving everything behind. Across Turkey, there have been solidarity-meetings with the participation of several political parties and civil society organizations. These rallies were being organized mainly by the Kurdish party HDP (Peoples’ Democratic Party). Rallies turned into protests and then turned violent. Eventual result so far is declaration of curfew in 6 cities and -up until now- over 15 got killed.

The New Turkey

Before the August 10 Presidential election when Turkey voted on her president for the first time in history, the promise of President Erdoğan was “the New Turkey” where peace process would finally start blooming and fruiting to bring peaceful end to “Kurdish Question”, democratic rights would be granted and economic expansion would prevail. Looking at the first 50 days of New Turkey, one would not really see anything new really, except for a few new methods in violation of rights and liberties.

The New Turkey was going to be one free from military presence on its streets; as the president had said “military’s duty is at the borders, to protect the country against external enemies”, however not only did the police forces get militarized, but also tanks are strolling in the streets of several cities and even in Istanbul military gendarmarie forces are mobilizing in order to prevent any kind of solidarity protest for Kobane. To be fair, protesters are under bigger threat from anti-protestor mobs attacking with guns and police obviously has proven ineffective in preventing civilians exchange gun shots.

Istanbul’s Esenyurt District

Border lock-down

When ISIS started offensive against Kobane, people used their right to defend themselves and resist against a possibly massacre. Yet, many people had to flee from the region and run away from the marching IS gangs. In September, hundreds of thousands of people were mobilized. For over a week, Turkey did not allow the border to be crossed. Protests had started taking place back then. As there was no permission to let civilians in, there emerged protests in major metropolis and especially in the predominantly Kurdish cities. Finally on the 19th of September, Turkey opened the border to allow civilians fleeing from ISIS siege on Kobane to take refuge.

Permission to intervene

A week after the border was opened for controlled passes, there came the discussion to allow Turkish military to intervene in the situation; at which stage the street-spirit changed form and turned into anti-war protests. On October 2nd, Turkish parliament voted on the permission to allow Turkish soldiers to intervene in Iraq and Syria against ISIS. By then the HDP refused to vote yes on the permission, alongside the Republican People’s Party CHP.

The irony in the permission is that currently the sides seem to have changed. When HDP organizes anti-ISIS protests and CHP silently seems to be approving of them, the Nationalist Movement Party MHP and ruling AKP have taken a stand against them, even though the latter two were the ones to approve of ground-forces military action against ISIS gangs.

Night of Clashes

The night of October 7 saw a long night of drifting back to darkness of 1980s and 1990s. Protests against ISIS started turning violent. There started emerging images and videos of cars and buildings being set on fire, Turkish flags being burned and Ataturk busts being torn down. However these images simultaneously appearing on media makes one feel like it is being staged; also with the knowledge of prior cases when National Intelligence Agency MIT agents were caught throwing molotov cocktails and provoking protests to turn them violent.

Yet, violent images might have served to a purpose, as several nationalist and islamist radical groups have taken to streets and started shooting at the protesters; especially after a piece of fake news stating that “the protesters are burning Quran on streets”.

Until the shootings it was the police handling the situation badly, and when more sides started clashing, then came curfew declarations and military started marching in to city centers in several cities in the east. This was not officially a declaration of martial law, or even state of emergency. Yet, when tanks are marching on streets, it does not take much to guess what it is, one does not need someone’s definition of the situation.

When anti-ISIS protesters were clashing with police forces on streets, pro-ISIS groups also took to streets and started assaulting on the other side. According to initial reports, around 15 people have been killed. And a dangerous declaration has been set in place today, calling for retaliation on the islamist organizations in Turkey. In the 1990s, Hezbollah in Turkey had been used against the PKK and thousands of people had died in shadowy clashes. This time it started fast and Kurdish groups have declared they will resist.

Turkish minister of interior affairs Efkan Ala also evaluated the protests and the violent surge. Ala declared that any type of violence will be met with multiplied violence. Ala also had the same method against Gezi Park protests in 2013 when he was an adviser of the prime minister on security issues; after which he got appointed as minister without being elected into parliament.

Media Blackout

Turkish media has not surprised anyone yet again. When clashes were unraveling, curfew was being declared in half a dozen cities and number of deaths were climbing amid widespread protests and counter-protester violent attacks, Turkish TV channels were broadcasting entertainment shows, very much in line with the penguin patterns they have been carrying out during times of crises.

When there was protests in Egypt, Turkish television channels were broadcasting live from across Egypt; when there happened a coup, it was broadcasted live in Turkey… Turkish audience is allowed to watch all kinds of crisis situations and repression of rights live on TV as long as it does not happen in Turkey.

If anything was shown, this was portraying all the protests and protesters as “terrorists” that targeted Turkish national unity and sovereignty; yet failed to raise the question why would anyone demanding the intervention of Turkish troops against ISIS, attack Turkish nation. And, second question, how come police always manages to get hold of the people that shout slogans and fail to find the ones that carry out such attacks. Media definitely is being used for fueling the fire against Kobane-solidarity protests, serving as a tool of consent manufacturing. Given the number of internet-literate people who critically gets the news from social media, the media blackout seems to work in favor of the ones who are benefitting from violence on streets of Turkey.

Chaos Lobby

While Turkish government explained everything previously with ….. lobby, the most recent uprisings in Turkey have been blamed on “Chaos Lobby”. All state officials, ministers who appear on TV put the blame on a shady non-existent organization that they call chaos lobby, probably an advanced version of the interest-rate lobby, terror lobby, social media lobby, porn lobby, judiciary lobby, marginal lobby, parallel lobby…

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Bulgaristan’da Seçim ve Aşırı Sağın Durumu

Seçmenlerin siyasi partilerden hiçbirini tercih etmek istemediği bir ortamda, sistem karşıtı ve köklü değişimler iddiasında olan bir ATAKA, Bulgaristan’daki siyasi ahlak krizinden en çok faydalanan siyasi oluşum olmuştu.

(Orjinali Bianet’te)

 

Aşırı sağ ATAKA hükümet koalisyonuna dahil olmadan önce aldığı halk desteğini asla bir araya gelmeyeceğini iddia ettiği kişilerle birlikte hareket edince kaybetti. Fakat aşırı sağ görüşler karizmatik lider Volen Siderov’un partisiyle birlikte erimiyor, yeni sağ partiler çıkışta.

Gazetenin Sağ Köşesi: Siderov

Bulgaristan’da siyasi yaşamın partiler değişse bile ülkedeki siyasi kültürde sıradanlaşmış yolsuzluklar zincirinde sürmesine bir tepki olarak ortaya çıkan bir gazeteciydi Volen Siderov. Fotoğrafçı, gazeteci, editör ve yazar kimlikleriyle toplumsal yaşamda yükselen Siderov komünizmin çökmesi ve Thodor Zhivkov’un yönetiminin bitmesi ardından demokrasi hareketlerinde yer almış, insan haklarını ön plana çıkaran hareketlere dahil olmuştu.

2003 yılında Sofya valiliği adaylığını açıklayarak seçimlere katılsa da, yüzde 0.4′lük oy oranıyla aday olarak tanınırlığını dahi gösteremedi. Fakat sınırlı çevresinin çeperlerini kırarak ününü artırması “Hücum” manasına gelen “Ataka” adlı bir televizyon programında ülkedeki yolsuzlukları ifşa etmesiyle oldu. Gazeteciliğin tüm olanaklarını kullanarak yolsuzluğa bulaşan siyasileri Bulgaristan toplumuna gösterip “sizin iradenizi kullanarak ülkeyi soyanlar işte bunlar” diyordu.

Televizyon programında eleştirdiği yolsuzluklar ve hukuksuzlukları anlatırken, Bulgaristan’da yaşayan Türklerin yoğun olarak oy verdiği Haklar ve Özgürlükler Hareketi DPS’li bakanlara karşı olan tutumunu bütün bir Türk toplumuna yayarak aşırı sağ bir duruşun belirtilerini veriyordu.

Bulgaristan ekonomisinin ve kalkınma planlarının önünde bir duvar gibi yükselen yolsuzlukları eleştirmenin getirdiği özgüven, aşırı sağ bir duruş ve popülizmle birleşince aktif siyasete atılan Volen Siderov, 2006 yılında cumhurbaşkanlığı adaylığını açıkladı ve birinci turda yüzde 20′yi geçerken, ikinci turda yüzde 24 oy aldı. Ataka ise 2007 yılında girdiği ilk seçimlerde yüzde 8′in üzerinde oy aldı ve meclisteki dördüncü büyük parti oldu. Avrupa Parlamentosuna üç vekil gönderen Ataka’ya olan destek gitgide artarken 2009 yılında oy oranını yüzde 9.4′e getirdi.

Front National benzerliği

Cumhurbaşkanlığı seçimlerindeki oy stratejisi dolayısıyla sıklıkla Fransadaki aşırı sağ lider Le Pen’in aday olduğu 2000 seçimleriyle kıyaslanan Siderov, Ataka’daki kariyerini Front National’den çok tekin olmasa bile daha hızlı bir adımla sürdürerek “Bulgaristan’ın Avrupai Kalkınması için Yurttaşlar”ın (GERB) uzun süre yürüttüğü tek parti iktidarına karşı 2013 yılında büyük koalisyona girerek hükümet ortağı oldu. Bu koalisyonda asla yanyana gelmeyeceğini söylediği Bulgaristan Sosyalist Partisi yöneticileri ve her fırsatta nefretini dile getirdiği Türklerle birlikte hareket eden Ataka, GERB’i Bulgaristan için var olan en büyük tehlike ilan etmişti.

Genel olarak Avrupa Birliği, NATO ve küreselleşme karşıtlığı üzerine kurulu bir gündeme sahip olan Ataka, ülkedeki azınlıklara karşı nefret söylemi ve şiddete meyledebilecek eylemleri de ilke edinmiş gibi kullanıyor. Bu gündemle birlikte “Kimlik, Gelenek, Egemenlik” grubuna dahil olan Ataka milletvekilleri, Avrupa Parlamentosunda bu kısa ömürlü grubun en sert savunucularından birileriydi.

Koltuk kazanınca gündem değişiyor

Aşırı sağ partilerin çok sert bir muhalefet çizgileri bulunuyor. ATAKA’da Avrupa’daki diğer örneklerle genellikle birlikte hareket ediyor ya da oradaki deneyimlerden öğrenerek kendi yöntemlerini belirliyor. Fakat, Avrupa’nın çoğu ülkesinde gerçekleşmeyen bir fark Bulgaristan’da hayata geçip Ataka hükümet ortağı olduğunda, verilen vaatlerin tutulmadığını gören seçmenler için durum değişti. Ülkenin menfaati için en büyük tehlike olarak neoliberal gündemi gerçekleştiren ve ATAKA’nın deyimiyle “modern sömürgeciliği getiren” GERB’in sunulması ve daha öncesinde yerden yere vurulan partilerle bir koalisyona girilme ihtimali ile gerçekleştirilen Mayıs 2013 seçimlerinde oy oranı yüzde 7′ye inmesine rağmen ATAKA Meclis’teki sandalye sayısını artırmış ve temsiliyetini yüzde 10′a çıkarmıştı. Önceki yıllarda partiye destek yüzde 16′ya kadar çıkmış olmasına rağmen, parti gündemine aykırı eylemler seçmenleri diğer alternatiflere yöneltmiş görünüyor. Bunda tabii ki Bulgaristan siyasi yaşamına yeni doğmuş olan üç tane daha popülist partinin varlığı da etkili oldu.

Gezi Parkı protestolarıyla birlikte başlayan, “DANSwithMe” hashtag’iyle yaygınlaşan işgal hareketi meclis binasını bir yıldır işgal altında tutuyordu ve seçimlerin üzerinden geçen bir senenin ardından yapılan Avrupa Parlamentosu seçimlerinde ATAKA’nın oy oranı yüzde 2′ye kadar geriledi. Avrupa Parlemantosu seçimleri sonrası koalisyon ortaklarına olan desteğin eridiği görülünce hükümet istifa etmek zorunda kaldı ve erken seçimler ilan edildi. Geçici hükümet şu an için GERB ve BSP iktidarına hazırlarken ülkeyi, ATAKA’nın ise emaresi bile okunmuyor.

Siyasi ahlak kriziyle büyüdü, sisteme dahil olup eridi

Seçimlere katılımın genellikle yüzde 50′nin altında kaldığı, seçmenlerin var olan siyasi partilerden hiçbirini tercih etmek istemediği bir ortamda, sistem karşıtı ve köklü değişimler iddiasında olan bir ATAKA Bulgaristan’daki siyasi ahlak krizinden en çok faydalanan siyasi oluşum olmuştu. Fakat sisteme dahil olmasıyla birlikte, özellikle de hükümet koalisyonuna katılmasının ardından yıpranan parti bugün varlığını sürdürüp sürdüremeyeceği belli olmadığı bir seçime hazırlanıyor.

Öte yandan, Bulgaristan’da aşırı sağ söylemlerin sonu ATAKA’nın erimesiyle gelmiyor. Yeni siyasi oluşumlara bakılacak olursa bir tane Avrupa bütünleşmesini hedefleyen ve bölgesel kalkınmayı ön plana çıkaran partiye nazaran üç yeni popülist partinin de oylarını artırdığı görülebilir. Var olan merkez partileri kendilerini yenilemedikleri ve daha kitlesel parti içi katılımı teşvik etmedikleri sürece, aşırı sağ partiler oylarını ve oranlarını artırmaya devam edecek gibi görünüyor.

5 Ekim 2014 tarihinde gerçekleşecek erken seçimlerde meclise girmesi beklenmeyen ATAKA yine de hazırlıklarını olabildiğince hızıyla sürdürürken, anketlerin açıkladığı üzere katılımın yüzde 70′leri bulması bekleniyor. Meclise girme ihtimali olan parti sayısı ise dört ile yedi arasında hareketlilik gösteriyor. Meclise yedi partinin girebilme ihtimaline vurgu yapılan anket sonuçlarında, yeni partilerden, BSP’den ayrılan siyasilerin oluşturduğu Bulgaristan Dönüşümü için Alternatif (ABV) ve popülist söylemlerle oy oranını artıran Reform Bloğu, Yurtsever Cephe ve Sansürsüz Bulgaristan bulunuyor.

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Bulgaristan’da Yine Erken Seçim

Bulgaristan’da Gezi Parkı direnişiye yaklaşık aynı dönemde başlayan halk hareketi sonrası ikinci kez erken seçime gidiliyor.

(Orjinali Bianet’te)

 

Siyasi krizin sürdüğü Bulgaristan, son iki yılda ikinci kez erken genel seçime gidiyor. Seçim 5 Ekim 2014 Pazar günü yapılacak.

Bulgaristan Sosyalist Partisi (BSP) ve üyelerinin çoğunluğunu Türklerin oluşturduğu Hak ve Özgürlükler Hareketi (HÖH) partisinin oluşturuduğu koalisyonunla kurulan 89. Hükümet, sadece bir yıl iktidarda kalabildi.

Bulgaristan’da bir yıllık toplumsal hareket ve işgal eylemleri ardından büyük koalisyon hükümeti, 23 Temmuz 2014 günü erken seçim kararını açıklayarak istifa etmişti.

Sokaklarda öğrencilerin protestolarında polisin öğrencilere sert müdahalesiyle itibarı sarsılarak 2 Şubat 2013′te istifa eden Boyko Borissov’un ardından “Bulgaristan’ın Avrupai Kalkınması için Yurttaşlar” Partisi GERB’in tek başına iktidarı sona ermiş ve 2013 Mayıs ayında erken seçime gidilmişti. Seçim takviminin açıklandığı Şubat ayından itibaren sokaklar sakinleşirken, mecliste bulunan dört partiden GERB hariç diğer üçünün (Bulgaristan Sosyalist Partisi, Haklar ve Özgürlükler Hareketi, ATAKA) zorlu bir koalisyona gitmesi üzerine siyasi arenada gergin bir ortam oluşmuş ve hükümet, görevdeki birinci ayını dolduramadan meclisin önündeki meydan işgal edilmişti.

Türkiye’de Gezi Parkı protestolarıyla neredeyse eşzamanlı olarak başlayan işgal hareketi aradan geçen bir yılda dinamizmini kaybetmeden sürekliliğini sağladı ve hükümet istifa ederek erken seçim kararı aldı. Haziran 2013′te, Bulgaristan gizli servisi olan Ulusal Güvenlikten Sorumlu Müdürlük (DANS) pozisyonuna yapılan atamalarda bir işadamı ve milletvekili olan Delyan Peevski’nin adının direktör pozisyonu için anılmasıyla birlikte yolsuzluk karşıtı gösteriler başlamış ve kısa sürede bir işgal hareketine dönüşmüştü. Yeni hükümetin, devletin eski geleneklerini devam ettirme niyetinde olduğu iddiasındaki kişiler DANS atamasının iptalini ve hükümetin istifasını talep ettiler.

Meclis DANS işgalinde

DANSetBenle hashtagiyle çevrimiçi paylaşımlarla kitle gitgide kalabalığını artırırken, bir önceki kıştan kalma öğrenci hareketini toplumsal bir harekete yaymayı başardı. Hergün onbinlerce kişi 18:30′da meclis binasının çevresine akın ederken, polis müdahalesi olmaması dikkat çekiciydi. Bir sene boyunca zaman zaman artarak ve azalarak kalabalık varlığını sürdürdü ve nihayetinde merkez sağa karşı oluşturulan büyük koalisyonun daha fazla dayanamayacağı noktaya kadar geldi.

Koalisyon ortaklarından aşırı sağ ATAKA asla bir araya gelmeyeceğini vaadettiği partiler ve siyasilerle koalisyona girerek kendi tabanını kaybetti, Bir önceki hükümet döneminden çıkarımlar elde etmemiş bir sosyalist parti, siyasetteki eski yolsuzluk geleneğini sürdürebileceğinin sinyallerini vererek toplumdaki hoşnutsuzluğu körükledi. Ve “Türk Partisi” olarak da bilinen DPS de parti içi demokrasi geleneğinin oturmaması ve lider ne kadar değişmiş olsa da parti içindeki kilit isimlerin aynı kalmasıyla birlikte değişim iddialarının altını dolduramadı.

Öte yandan, ilk çıkış iddiası yolsuzluk ve yoksullukla mücadele olan GERB’in iktidarda kaldığı süre boyunca gelişim ve iyileşmeden ziyade zümre değişimi gerçekleştirmesinden dolayı, her ne kadar partiye olan destek halen ülkedeki en yüksek olsa da GERB’i iktidara taşıyacak oranı bulamıyor. Geçtiğimiz yıl yapılan seçimlerde GERB meclis içerisindeki en büyük grup olmasına rağmen, diğer tüm partiler tarafından yalnız bırakılınca “tek başına muhalefet” olmak zorunda kalmıştı. Haftasonu yapılacak erken seçimlerde yine en yüksek oy oranını alması beklenen parti için koalisyon yine tek çıkış yolu olsa da de pek mümkün görünmüyor.

Sağ partilerin çıkışı

GERB’in tek başına iktidara gelmesinin imkansız göründüğü anketlerde, yeni yükselen sağ partilerin oy oranları çıkışta görünüyor. Meclise girmesi kesin gözüyle bakılan Sansürsüz Bulgaristan, Reform Bloğu, Yurtsever Cephe partilerinin yanı sıra Bulgaristan’a Alternatif ve daha önce de meclise girmiş olan aşırı sağ ATAKA’nın da yüzde dörtlük barajı geçebileceği öngörülüyor.

Daha önceki seçimlerde her defasında git gide düşen seçime katılım oranları, bu seçimde de geçtiğimiz yıla göre düşecek gibi görünüyor. Beklentiler bu erken genel seçimlerde de katılımın yarıdan az kalması yönünde. Katılım oranları düştükçe, daha fazla parti ideolojik bağlarına sadık olan merkezden çok öte olan sağ partilerin oy rakamları yükselmese de oranları seçim sonuçlarında artıyor.

Bir önceki erken genel seçimlerde GERB karşıtı koalisyonda yer alan ATAKA’nın oylarının erimesiyle katılımını artıran diğer sağ partilerden ikisinin GERB ile koalisyona girme ihtimali de şimdiden yükseliyor. Geçtiğimiz yıl Borisov’un “ne olursa olsun ATAKA koalisyona alınmamalı, gerekirse ben tek başıma güvenoyu verilmesine katkı verirdim” şeklindeki açıklamalarının ardından, yapılacak erken genel seçimler sonucu aşırı sağ görüşlü siyaseti ne kadar kabul edeceği merak konusu.

Partilerin oy oranları ne olacak?

Alpha Araştırma Merkezi daha önceki seçim sonuçlarına dair oldukça yakın tahminlerde bulunmuş ve güvenilir bir kaynak olduğunu kanıtlamıştı. Seçimlerden bir hafta öncesinde yaptığı araştırmanın ardından GERB için yüzde 34 oy oranı öngörülüyor, ve bu da meclis içinde 98-100 vekil anlamına geliyor. BSP’nin oy oranı yüzde 19,1 ve vekil sayısı 53-55, Türk partisi DPS yüzde 15,4 ve 44-46 vekil ile üçüncü parti olarak mecliste yer almaya devam edecek görünüyor. Daha önce yüzde 11 oy oranı alan ATAKA dördüncü parti pozisyonunu yeni yükselen Reform Bloğu ve Sansürsüz Bulgaristan’a bırakmış gibi görünüyor. Bu iki partinin de oy oranları yüzde 6 ve bu da 16-18 vekil anlamına geliyor. Meclise girmesi muhtemel bir diğer parti ise yine sağdan Yurtsever Cephe, oy oranı yüzde 4,2 ve mecliste 12 sandalye alması mümkün.

Seçimlerin sonucunda meclis içinde oldukça renkli bir atmosfer oluşacağa benzer; fakat en dikkat çekici nokta son seçimlerin üzerinden geçen bir yıl boyunca toplumsal refah seviyesinin bir türlü yukarıya doğru bir ivme kazanamamış ve yaşamdan memnuniyet anketlerinde bir yükseliş kaydedilememiş olması. Hükümet yorgunu partilerin hiçbirinin kendilerini gerçek manasıyla yenilememesi, Bulgaristan’ın yerel sorunlarına -özellikle de demografik erimeye- hitap etmeden, çözüm önermeden birbirlerini yıpratmaya dayalı söylemler geliştirmesi de şu an için siyasi dönüşüme yardımcı olmuyor.

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